“Musiqueando” en la Ciudad: Re-Conceptualizando la Educación Musical Urbana como Práctica Cultural

Musicking in the City: Reconceptualizing Urban Music Education as Cultural Practice

Rubén Gaztambide Fernández


En este ensayo se discuten las ideas mas prevalecientes sobre la música urbana con el propósito de expandir las ideas normativas sobre la educación musical urbana y se propone una reconceptualización de ésta como práctica cultural. Los educadores de música, particularmente aquellos que trabajan en salones de clase urbanos y que están comprometidos con la justicia social, necesitan trabajar con y en contra de la noción estrecha prevaleciente de lo «urbano» que da forma a la manera en que pensamos tanto sobre la música urbana como sobre la educación urbana. Utilizando ideas de la teoría cultural contemporánea, en este ensayo se extiende la definición de lo urbano como práctica cultural y se señalan las posibilidades que tal marco pudiera ofrecer para la reconceptualización de la educación musical urbana.

Challenging prevailing ideas of urban music in order to expand normative conceptions of urban music education, this essay proposes a reconceptualization of urban music education as cultural practice. Music educators, particularly those working in urban classrooms and committed to social justice, need to work both with and against the prevailing narrow conception of the “urban” that shapes the way we think about both urban music and urban education. Drawing on insights from contemporary cultural theory, the essay extends a definition of the urban as cultural practice and points to the possibilities that such a framework might offer for a reconceptualization of urban music education.

Palabras clave

Producción cultural; práctica cultural; hip hop; educación musical urbana; música urbana; escuelas urbanas.

Cultural production; cultural practice; hip hop; urban music education; urban music; urban schools

Texto completo:



Abreu, J. A. (2009). On kids transformed by music. Ponencia presentada en 2009 TED Prize Lecture. Disponible en http://www.ted.com/talks/jose_abreu_on_kids_transformed_by_music/transcript. Recuperado el 1 de julio del 2014.

Addams, J. (1909). The spirit of youth and the city streets. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Akom, A. (2009). Critical hip hop pedagogy as a form of liberatory praxis. Equity & Excellence in Education, 42(1), 52–170.

Allsup, R. E. (1997). From Herscher to Harlem: A subjective account. Music Educators Journal, 83, 33–36.

Anyon, J. (2009). Theory and educational research: Toward critical social explanation. Nueva York: Routledge.

Apple, M. (2004). Ideology and curriculum. Nueva York: Routledge.

Apple, M. & Leonardo, Z. (2010). Putting “critical” back into education research. Educational Researcher, 39(2), 152–62.

Arnold, M. (1869). Culture and anarchy: An essay in political and social criticism. Londres: Smith, Elder and Co.

Atkinson, R. (2007). Ecology of sound: The sonic order of urban space. Urban Studies, 44(10), 1905–1918.

Ayalon, A. (2003). Why is rural education missing from multicultural education textbooks? The Educational Forum, 68(1), 24–31.

Bannerji, H. (2000). The dark side of the nation: Essays on multiculturalism, nationalism and gender. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.

Barlow, W. (1999). Voice over: The making of black radio. Filadelfia: Temple University Press.

Bartel, L. R. (2004). Introduction: What is the music education paradigm? En L. R. Bartel (Ed.). Questioning the music education paradigm. Waterloo: Canadian Music Educators’ Association.

Benedict, C. & Schmidt, P. (2007). From whence justice? Interrogating the improbable in music education. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 6(4), 21–42. Disponible en http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Benedict_Schmidt6_4.pdf

Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bourdieu, P. (1993). The field of cultural production. Nueva York: Columbia University Press.

Broudy, H. (1994). Enlightened cherishing: An essay on aesthetic education. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.

Bryson, B. (1996). “Anything but heavy metal”: Symbolic exclusion and musical dislikes. American Sociological Review, 61, 884–899.

Buckingham, D. (1998). Teaching popular culture: Beyond radical pedagogy. Londres: UCL Press.

Buckingham, D. (2000). After the death of childhood: Growing up in the age of electronic media. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Buckingham, D. (2003). Media education and the end of the critical consumer. Harvard Educational Review, 73(3), 309–327.

Campbell, M. (2009). Remixing the social: Pursuing social inclusion through music education. En E. Gould, J. Countryman, C. Morton & L. Stewart-Rose, (Ed.). Exploring social justice: How music education might matter. Waterloo: Canadian Music Educators’ Association.

Carter, D. (2008). Achievement as resistance: The development of a critical race achievement ideology among black achievers. Harvard Educational Review, 78(3), 466–497.

Carter, P. (2005). Keepin’ it real: School success beyond black and white. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chang, J. (2005). Can’t stop, won’t stop: A history of the hip-hop generation. Nueva York: Picador.

Davis, M. (2006). Planet of slums. Nueva York: Verso.

de Certeau, M. (1984). The practice of everyday life. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Dei, G. J. S. (1997). Reconstructing “dropout”: A critical ethnography of the dynamics of black students’ disengagement from school. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Dimitriadis, G. (2001). Pedagogy and performance in black popular culture. Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies, 1(1), 24–35.

Duncan-Andrade, J. & E. Morrell. (2008). The art of critical pedagogy: Possibilities for moving from theory to practice in urban schools. Nueva York: Peter Lang.

D’Souza, D. (1996). The end of racism. Nueva York: Free Press.

Elliott, D. (1995). Music matters: A new philosophy of music education. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

Fiese, R. K. & N. J. DeCarbo. (1995). Urban music education: The teachers’ perspective. Music Educators Journal, 81, 28–31.

Forman, M. (2000). “Represent”: Race, space, and place in rap music. Popular Music, 19(1), 65–90.

Foster, M. (2007). Urban education in North America: Section editor's introduction. En W. Pink & G. Noblit (Ed.). International handbook of urban Education Dordrecht: Springer.

Frierson-Campbell, C. (Ed.). (2006). Teaching music in the urban classroom. Denver: Rowman & Littlefield.

Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Nueva York: Teachers College Press.

Gaztambide-Fernández, R. (2007). Inner, outer, and in-between: Why popular culture and the arts matter for inner city youth. Orbit, 36(3), 35–37.

Gaztambide-Fernández, R. (2008). The artist in society: Understandings, expectations, and curriculum implications. Curriculum Inquiry, 38(3), 233–265.

Gaztambide-Fernández, R. (2010). Wherefore the musicians? Philosophy of Music Education Review, 18(1), 45–56.

Gaztambide-Fernández, R. & Diaquoi, R. (2010). A part and apart: Students of color negotiating boundaries at an elite boarding school. En A. Howard & R. Gaztambide-Fernández (Ed.). Educating elites: Class privilege and educational advantage. Boulder: Rowman & Littlefield.

Gaztambide-Fernández, R. & Gruner, A. (2003). Popular culture and education [Special Issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 73(3).

Gaztambide-Fernández, R. & Guerrero, C. (2011). Proyecto Latin@—Year 1, Exploratory Research: Report to the Toronto District School Board. Toronto: Centre for Urban Schooling, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Goldberg, D. T. (1993). Racist culture: Philosophy and the politics of meaning. Malden: Blackwell.

Gould, E., Countryman, J., Morton, C. & Stewart-Rose, L. (Ed.) (2009). Exploring social justice: How music education might matter. Waterloo: Canadian Music Educators’ Association.

Hall, S. (1986). The problem of ideology–Marxism without guarantees. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 10(2), 45–60.

Hill, M. L. (2009). Beats, rhymes, and classroom life: Hip-hop pedagogy, and the politics of identity. Nueva York: Teachers College Press.

Hinckley, J. (1995). Urban music education: Providing for students. Music Educators Journal, 82(1), 32–35.

Jhally, S., Media Education Foundation (productores) & Jhally, S. (Director) (2007). Dreamworlds 3: Desire, sex, & power in music video [Vídeo/DVD]. Northampton: Foundation for Media Education.

Kumashiro, K. K. (2009). Against common sense: Teaching and learning toward social justice. Nueva York: Routledge–Falmer.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2009). “Who you callin’ nappy-headed?” A critical race theory look at the construction of black women. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 12(1), 87–99.

Leard, D. W. & Lashua, B. (2006). Popular media, critical pedagogy, and inner city youth. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(1), 244–264.

Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Leonardo, Z. (2009). Race, whiteness, and education. Nueva York: Taylor & Francis.

Leonardo, Z. & Hunter, M. (2007). Imagining the urban: The politics of race, class, and schooling. En W. Pink, & G. Noblit (Ed.). International handbook of urban Education. Dordrecht: Springer.

Lipsitz, G. (1994). Dangerous crossroads: Popular music, postmodernism, and the poetics of place. Nueva York: Verso.

May, S. (Ed.) (1999). Critical multiculturalism: Rethinking multicultural and antiracist education. Nueva York: Routledge.

Mantie, R. (2008). Getting unstuck: The one world youth arts project, the music education paradigm, and youth without advantage. Music Education Research, 10(4), 473–483.

Massey, D. S. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

McLaren, P. (1995). Critical pedagogy and predatory culture: Oppositional politics in a postmodern era. Nueva York: Routledge.

Moll, L. C., Amanti, C. & Neff, D. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31, 132–141.

Morrell, E. (2002). Toward a critical pedagogy of popular culture: Literacy development among urban youth. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(1), 72–77.

Morrell, E. & Duncan-Andrade J. (2002). Promoting academic literacy with urban youth through engaging hip-hop culture. English Journal, 91(6), 88–92.

Moynihan, D. P. (1965). The Negro family: The case for national action (The Moynihan report). Washington: US Department of Labor, Office of Planning and Research.

Murray, C. (1995). Loosing ground. Nueva York: Basic Books.

Nieto, S. (2002). Language, culture, and teaching: Critical perspectives for a new century. Nueva York: Routledge.

O'Neill Grace, C. (2006). Before the world changed: Independent school in the 1990s. Independent School, 65, 90–100.

Pardue, D. (2007). Hip hop as pedagogy: A look into "heaven" and "soul" in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Anthropological Quarterly, 80(3), 673–709.

Payne, R. & Ellis, K. (1995). A framework for understanding poverty. Highlands: Aha! Process.

Petchauer, E. (2009). Framing and reviewing hip-hop educational research. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 946–978.

Pinar, W. (Ed.) (2000). Curriculum studies: The reconceptualization. Troy: EIP Press.

Pinar, W. (2009). The worldliness of a cosmopolitan education: Passionate lives in public service. Nueva York: Taylor & Francis.

Razack, S. (1998). Looking white people in the eye: Gender, race, and culture in courtrooms and classrooms. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Reimer, B. (2003). A philosophy of music education: Advancing the vision. Nueva York: Prentice Hall.

Rice, J. (2003). The 1963 hip-hop machine: Hip-hop pedagogy as composition. College Composition and Communication, 54(3), 453–471.

Rivera, R. Z. (2001). Hip-hop, Puerto Ricans, and ethnoracial identities in New York. En A. Laó & A. Dávila (Ed.). Mambo montage: The latinization of New York. Nueva York: Columbia University Press.

Rose, T. (1994). Black noise: Rap music and black culture in contemporary America. Middletown: University Press of New England.

Simpson, K. J. (2005). Hit radio and the formatting of America in the early 1970s. Tesis doctoral: Universidad de Tejas.

Sizer, T. R. (Ed.). (1964). The age of the academies. Nueva York: Columbia University.

Small, C. (1987). Music of the common tongue: Survival and celebration in African American music. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press.

Small, C. (1998). Musicking: The meanings of performing and listening. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press.

Sterling, C. & Keith, M. (2008). Sounds of change: A history of FM broadcasting in America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Stovall, D. (2006). We can relate: Hip-hop culture, critical pedagogy, and the secondary classroom. Urban Education, 41(6), 585–627.

Vaugeois, L. (2007). Social justice and music education: Claiming the space of music education as a site of postcolonial contestation. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 6(4), 163–200. Disponible en http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Vaugeois6_4.pdf

Williams, M. (1995). New Yorkers & co.; It's a soul war salvo ... with Frankie Crocker! The New York Times, 4.

Williams, M. (2000). Frankie Crocker, a champion of black-format radio, dies. The New York Times, 23.

Wilson, B. (2001). Arts magnets and the transformation of schools and schooling. Education and Urban Society, 33(4), 366–387.

Wise, T. (2005). White like me. Brooklyn: Soft Skull Press.

Enlaces refback

Copyright (c) 2014 Rubén Gaztambide Fernández

Revista Internacional de Educación Musical. Publicada por la Sociedad Internacional para la Educación Musical (ISME).

Creative Commons LicenseThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.