Perfiles psicológicos vinculados a la ansiedad escénica entre diferentes conservatorios superiores de música españoles

Music Performance Anxiety and related psychological constructs. Students of five Spanish music Conservatories.

Francisco Javier Zarza Alzugaray, Óscar Casanova López, Santos Orejudo Hernández

Resumen


Se expone una investigación que analiza las diferencias encontradas en distintas variables psicológicas y de corte personal en función del centro de estudios al que pertenecen alumnos españoles de Grado Superior de Música. La muestra está compuesta por 482 estudiantes de 5 centros superiores, obtenida a partir de un criterio de disponibilidad muestral. Para la evaluación de los diferentes constructos psicológicos y variables contextuales y pedagógicas, se ha empleado un cuestionario realizado ad hoc en el que se incluyen instrumentos especialmente diseñados para la medición de la ansiedad, la motivación de logro en el contexto musical, la autoeficacia, el optimismo y la sensibilidad al premio y al castigo.

Tras el tratamiento cuantitativo de los datos, encontramos que además de en la ansiedad escénica, existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas (ρ< 0.05) en los distintos constructos en función del centro de estudios al que pertenezca el alumnado. La ansiedad escénica es un problema presente en los estudiantes de grado superior de música españoles. Consideramos que es necesario más estudio y reflexión sobre el tema y la creación de planes de formación específicos que ayuden al alumnado a superarlo, evitándose así las diferencias existentes entre los distintos centros.




Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in musicians is one of the biggest problems they face almost daily in their professional work. This study aims to determine whether there is a difference in MPA among Music majors students in Spain and if there is a variation depending on the study center to which they belong. This research, which can be considered as the first in Spain with these characteristics, analyses the differences in both MPA and its relationship with other psychological constructs (optimism, self-efficacy, achievement motivation and sensitivity to reward and punishment). The sample consists of 482 students from five centers, obtained from a sample availability criteria. For the evaluation of the different psychological constructs has been used a questionnaire ad hoc specially designed for measuring anxiety and the other constructs mentioned above. After the quantitative treatment of the data, it is found that MPA is present in these Spanish music students. In addition to the MPA, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in the different constructs were found.

Palabras clave


Estudiantes de música; Grado Superior de Música; ansiedad escénica; motivación; optimismo; autoeficacia; sensibilidad al premio; sensibilidad al castigo.



Music Performance Anxiety (MPA); motivation, optimism; self-efficacy; sensitivity to reward; sensitivity to punishment; higher conservatory music students.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Baessler, J. y Schwarcer, R. (1996). Evaluación de la autoeficacia: Adaptación española de la escala de Autoeficacia General. Ansiedad y Estrés, 2, 1-8.

Bandura, A. (1965). Influence of models´reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of personality and social psychology, 1 (6), 589-595.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997a). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Bandura, A. (1997b). Self-efficacy and health behaviour. En Baum, A., Newman, S., Wienman, J., West, R. y McManus, C. (Eds.). Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine (pp. 160-162). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self- efficacy beliefs of adolescents. En Kishner, B. Adolescence and Education, (pp. 307-337). Ed. University of Colorado School of Education.

Barlow, D. (2000). Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and is disorders from the perspective of emotion theory. American Psychologist, 55, 1247-1263.

Borkovec, T.D., Robinson, E., Pruzinsky, T. y Depree, J.A. (1983).

Preliminary explorations of worry: Some characteristics and processes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 9-16.

Carver, C.S. y Scheier, M.F. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and self-regulation. In Chang, E.C. (Ed.). Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice, (pp. 31-51). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Chang, E.C. (Ed.) (2001). Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Chemers, M.M., Hu, L. y Garcia, B.F. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and first year college student performance and adjustment. Journal of Education Psychology, 93, 55-64.

Connell, J.P. (1985). A new multidimensional measure of children’s perceptions of control. Child Development, 56, 1018-1041.

Covington, M.V. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation and school reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dalia, G. (2004). Cómo superar la ansiedad escénica en músicos. Madrid: Mundimúsica Ediciones.

Diener, E. y Chan, M.Y. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjetive well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied psychology: Health and well-being, 3 (1), 1-43.

Gray, J.A. (1982). Precis of the neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septohippocampal system. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, 469-534.

Hellandsig, E.T. (1998). Motivational predictors of high performance and discontinuation in different types of sports among talented teenage athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 27-44.

Jinks, J. y Lorsbach, A. (2003). Introduction: motivation and self-efficacy belief. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, 113-118.

Kenny, D.T. (2009a). Negative emotions in music making: Performance anxiety. En Juslin, P. y Sloboda, J. (Eds). Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Kenny, D.T. (2009b). The factor structure of the revised Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science,37-41, edited by Aaron Williamon, Sharman Pretty and Ralph Buck, published by the European Association of Conservatoires (AEC), Utrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 978-94-90306-01-4.

Kimbrel, N.A., Mitchell, J.T. y Nelson-Gray, R.O. (2010). An examination of the relationship between behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity and social interaction anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 372-378.

Manassero, M.A. y Vázquez, A. (1998). Validación de una escala de motivación de logro. Psicothema, 10 (2), 333-351.

Martin, A.J. (2008). How domain specific is motivation and engagement across school, sport, and music? A substantive–methodological synergy assessing young sportspeople and musicians. Contemporary educational psychology, 33, 785-813.

Marchant-Haycox, S.E., y Wilson, G.D. (1992). Personality and stress in performing artists. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 1061-1068.

McCormick, J. y McPherson, G. (2003). The role of self efficacy in a musical performance examination: an exploratory structural equation analysis. Psychology of Music, 31 (1), 37-51.

Nes, L.S. y Segerstrom, S.C. (2006). Dispositional optimism and coping: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 235-251.

O´Connor, R.M., Colder, C.R. y Hawk, L.W.Jr. (2004). Confirmatory factor analysis of the sensitivity to punishment and sensitivity to reward questionaire. Personality and individual differences, 37, 985-1002.

Osborne, M.S., Kenny, D.T. y Holsomback, R. (2005). Assessment of MPA in late childhood. International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 312-330.

Otero, J.M., Luengo, A., Romero, E., Gómez, J.A. y Castro, C. (1998). Psicología de personalidad. Manual de prácticas. Barcelona: Ariel Practicum.

Pinto-Meza. A., Suárez, D., Caseras, X., Haro, J.M., Serrano-Blanco, A. y Torrubia, R. (2009). Evaluación telefónica de los sistemas de activación e inhibición conductual. Revista de psiquiatría y salud mental, 2 (2), 66-71.

Ritchie, L. y Williamon, A. (2010). Measuring distinct types of musical self-efficacy. Psychology of Music. Advanced online publication. DOI:10.1177/0305735610374895

Ruthig, J., Raymond, P., Hall, N. y Hladkyj, S. (2004). Optimism and Attributional Retraining: Longitudinal Effects on Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety, and Voluntary Course Withdrawal in College Students1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34 (4), 709-730.

Salmon, P. (1990): A psychological perspective on Musical Performance Anxiety - a review of the literature. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 5 (1), 1-11.

Sanjuán, P., Pérez, A.M. y Bermúdez, J. (2000). Escala de autoeficacia general: datos psicométricos de la adaptación para la población española. Psicothema, 12 (2), 609-613.

Scheier, M.E, Weintraub, J.K. y Carver, C.S. (1986). Coping with stress: Divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1257-1264.

Scheier, M., Carver, C.S. y Bridges, M.W. (1994) Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 51, 1257-1264.

Siddique, H.I., La Salle-Ricci, V.H., Glass, C.R., Arnkoff, D.B. y Díaz, R.J. (2006). Worry, optimism and expectations as Predictors of Anxiety and Performance in the First Year of Law School. Cognitive Therapy Researches, 30, 667-676.

Song, Z. y Chon, K. (2012). General self-efficacy’s effect on career choice goals via vocational interests and person-job fit: A mediation model. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 798-808.

Spinath, B., Spinath, F.M., Harlaar, N. y Plomin, R. (2006). Predicting school achievement from general cognitive ability, self-perceived ability, and intrinsic value. Intelligence, 34, 363-374.

Stoecker, J.A. (1999). Optimism and grade expectancies. Psychological Reports, 84, 873-879.

Torrubia, R., Ávila, C., Moltó, J. y Caseras, X. (2001). The sensitivity to punishment and sensitivity to reward questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of Gray´s anxiety and impulsivity dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 837-862.

Van Kemenade, J.F.L.M., Van Son, M.J.M. y Van Heesch, N.C.A. (1995). Performance anxiety among professional musicians in symphonic orchestras: a self-reported study. Psycological Reports, 77, 555-562.

Wigfield, A. y Eccles, J.S. (2000). Expectancy-value theory of motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 68-81.

Yoshie, M., Kudo, K., Murakoshi, T. y Ohtsuki, T. (2009). Music performance anxiety in skilled pianists: Effects of social-evaluative performance situation on subjective, autonomic, and electromyographic reactions. Experimental Brain Research, 199 (2), 117-126.

Autor, (2014). Variables psicológicas y pedagógicas como predictoras de la ansiedad escénica en músicos en formación superior. Universidad de Zaragoza. Tesis doctoral sin publicar.

Autores, (2015). Kenny Music Performance Inventory. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Spanish version. Psychology of Music, 1-13. DOI: 10.1177/0305735614567932

Zimmerman, B.J. (2000). Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive to Learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 82-91.

Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Achieving self-regulation: The trial and triumph of adolescence. En Pajares, F. y Urdan, T. (Eds.). Academic motivation of adolescents (pp. 1-28). Connecticut: Information Age Publishing.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Copyright (c) 2016 Francisco Javier Zarza Alzugaray, Óscar Casanova López, Santos Orejudo Hernández

Revista Internacional de Educación Musical. Publicada por la Sociedad Internacional para la Educación Musical (ISME).

Creative Commons LicenseThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.